Facial plast Surg 2019; 35(03): 230-238
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1688844
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Neurotoxins

1  Department of Otolaryngology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
,
David A. Sherris
1  Department of Otolaryngology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
› Author Affiliations
Funding The authors have no financial disclosures.
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
12 June 2019 (online)

Abstract

Botulinum toxin is integral to the practice of facial plastic surgery. Since it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the temporary improvement of glabellar rhytids in 2002, botulinum toxin has achieved a growing number of off-label clinical applications. These include the management of facial rhytids, brow ptosis, excessive gingival display, masseteric hypertrophy, platysmal banding, facial nerve paralysis, hypertrophic scars, and keloids. Many forms of botulinum toxin have been developed, and their safety and efficacy have been thoroughly established. This article will review the aesthetic and functional uses of botulinum toxin as it relates to the field of facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. In addition, the authors will discuss the suggested quantity of units per injection site based on onabotulinumtoxinA.

Supplementary Material